MANAGED TO, SUCCEEDED IN, WAS ABLE TO are used to express achievements or non-achievements connected to ability at a specific point in the past.
So, Janette, welcome to the 21st century! You have a new mobile due to the kindness and generosity of your sister.
So, is it exhausted with all that trending, tweeting and twotting, the whatsapping and ipinning, the selfying and buying and selling, the counselling and predicting, and the sending emojis and emojoys?
No, it doesn’t need to take a nap yet because although I managed to work out how to turn it on and after a lot of effort I succeeded in recharging it, unfortunately, I wasn’t able to put in my sim card. So, at the moment it’s collecting dust in a drawer!
Caution: most of the words above describing the functionality of mobiles aren’t ‘real ‘words, I’m just practising for when I join the WhatsUp-App community!
Must and Have to, can be used to express obligations. Simply put: Must expresses a personal obligation while Have to an impersonal obligation or fact.
So, with this in mind:
- I must start writing my Christmas cards.
- I must go on the wagon for a few weeks because I want to drink like a fish during the festive period.
- I must check my bank balance to ensure that my credit card isn’t about to be confiscated.
- I must stockpile bottles of wine and tins of lager because drinking is the only way to cope with Christmas jingles.
- I must stockpile a lot of pain killers.
- I must find a new boyfriend who is keen on the concept of ‘part-time temporary’ dating. All this commitment is getting on my nerves.
- I must think of an unquestionable reason why I’ve decided not to spend Christmas with my family.
- I must remind myself not to go ice skating because this leads to broken bones.
- I must invent a cheap gadget to help my ass defy the law of gravity.
Gosh, I feel exhausted with all these obligations!
Must and Have to, can be used to express obligations. Simply put: Must expresses a personal obligation while Have to an impersonal obligation or a fact. As Christmas is not far off my mother has given me the following obligations:
Well, my plan is to avoid going back to the UK for Christmas so I don’t have to do any of the above. Furthermore, I would rather slit my own wrists and cut out my tongue than drink eggnog. Eggnog is for nutjobs and dairy lovers!
Seriously, what’s the problem with looking like a scarecrow, talking about my new favourite Spanish sitcom, ‘Gym Tony’, and drinking vodka?
Public notices and laws express obligations with the modal verb MUST and MUST NOT.
So what do these public notices mean? Perhaps:
- Police, you must look the other way, I’m growing some medicinal plant life.
- You must not enter this club if you have a heart problem.
- You must not buy a kangaroo for Christmas, they are wild ferocious animals and I can’t stand them!
Now, this is a gentle reminder to my Spanish driving friends about road regulations.
- At a traffic light, you must stop at a red light; a red light does not mean you must accelerate.
- At a roundabout, you must pay attention to lanes and indicate to let everyone know what you are doing.
- Motorbikes must not drive on the pavement.
- You must not deliberately crash into the front or back of a car in order to make a parking space bigger
- You must not put on mascara, check your WhatsUp?-App, nor take your pants off.
Bird’s nest or Janette’s hair without the eggs?
In general the difference between Must and Have to is connected to personal opinion. If it is your personal opinion to do something then usually we use MUST + BARE INFINITIVE, and if it isn’t connected to your opinion, for example an external situation, then we usually use HAVE TO + BARE INFINITIVE.
- My hair looks like a bird’s nest I must go to the hairdressers.
- I must phone my mother because I’ve not spoken to her for a month.
- My nephew has to go to school
- I had to walk home last night as I missed the last bus.
Sounds easy?! Well, test your knowledge here: Click here
We use the modal verbs: Must, Might and Could when we want to express a possibility. So, imagine that Pepé de Ronda is an adrenaline junkie who is very keen on rock climbing and we want to know where he is.
So we ask: Where is Pepé de Ronda?
- He MUST be rock climbing ( I am 100% sure)
- He MIGHT be white water rafting. ( I am 75% sure)
- He COULD be in the pub with Janette. ( 50% It’s a possible option)
Grammar Tip! Please remember, if you use a modal verb, you have to use the bare infinitive in the following verb. MODAL VERB+ BARE INFINITIVE (B.INF:without TO ) MUST BE, MIGHT BE, COULD BE
WHAT ARE YOU SAYING?
What are you saying? Seriously, I don’t understand you. Is it a question, a request, a suggestion, an obligation, an invitation, some advice, a complaint……..?????!!!!! Oh no, I have a headache! Help me, help me: where are the aspirin?
I DON’T UNDERSTAND MODAL VERBS
The English language is often very difficult to understand and sometimes seems to be completely illogical. Well don’t worry, as the British Government said after World War 2: ‘Keep Calm and Carry On.’
What are Modal Verbs?
Modal Verbs are auxiliary verbs that modify another verb in order to change the meaning of the expression: (i.e. what is being said)
Examples of Modal Verbs include:
- Can, Could, Must, May, Might, Should, Shouldn’t, Ought To, Would
When do you use them?
To express the following language functions:
- Requests, Permission, Offers and Invitations
- Advice and Recommendations, Suggestions and Prohibition
- Obligations, Duties, Necessities and Ability
- The likelihood: Certainty, Possibility
- A complaint
- They do not have infinitives
- They don’t take s, ing or ed suffixes
- They are followed by the bare infinitive. The infinitive without To, for example: walk, eat, drink. Not: To walk, To eat, To drink
- They come before the subject in questions
EXAMPLES OF LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
Look, learn and use:
- Requests, Permission, Offers and Invitations. Click here:modals_LF_orpi
- Advice and Recommendations, Suggestions and Prohibition.Click here:modals_LF_arsp
- Obligations, Duties, Necessities and Ability. Click here:modals_LF_odna
- The likelihood: Certainty, Possibility. Click here:modals_LF_cpl
Easter is a time when many people take time off work. This year I . I have ants in my pants because I am taking a mini getaway to chill out, recharge my batteries and spend time with my family. So, can you guess what I am going to do by the contents of my suitcase?
- High heels
- Cocktail dress
- Flip flops
- iPod Nano
- Nail varnish
Posted in Grammar, Reading, Vocabulary
Tagged aprende ingles, b1, b2, c1, Expressions, Holidays, idioms malaga, modal verbs, speculation